“Randomista mania”, by Thomas Aston

Thomas Aston provides a helpful summary of RCT critiques, particularly in international evaluations.

Waddington, Villar, and Valentine (2022), cited therein, provide a handy review of comparisons between RCT and quasi-experimental estimates of programme effect.

Aston also cites examples of unethical RCTs. One vivid example is an RCT in Nairobi with an arm that involved threatening to disconnect water and sanitation services if landlords didn’t settle debts.