Evaluating What Works, by Dorothy Bishop and Paul Thompson

“Those who work in allied health professions aim to make people’s lives better. Often, however, it is hard to know how effective we have been: would change have occurred if we hadn’t intervened? Is it possible we are doing more harm than good? To answer these questions and develop a body of knowledge about what works, we need to evaluate interventions.

“As we shall see, demonstrating that an intervention has an impact is much harder than it appears at first sight. There are all kinds of issues that can arise to mislead us into thinking that we have an effective treatment when this is not the case. On the other hand, if a study is poorly designed, we may end up thinking an intervention is ineffective when in fact it is beneficial. Much of the attention of methodologists has focused on how to recognize and control for unwanted factors that can affect outcomes of interest. But psychology is also important: it tells us that own human biases can be just as important in leading us astray. Good, objective intervention research is vital if we are to improve the outcomes of those we work with, but it is really difficult to do it well, and to do so we have to overcome our natural impulses to interpret evidence in biased ways.”

(Over here.)